Download Free Latest CFA Level 3 Exam Questions To Get Certified

Download Free Latest CFA Level 3 Exam Questions To Get Certified

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1. “The GIPS general provisions for real estate and for private equity require that both income and capital gains are included in the calculation and presentation of returns."

Of the three scenarios (see Figure 2) presented to the Beeman Enterprises executives, which would represent the appropriate reaction to increasing the pension plan allocation to equity, if management wishes to maintain its current equity beta?

2. Theresa Bair, CFA, a portfolio manager for Brinton Investment Company (BIC), has recently been promoted to lead portfolio manager for her firm's new small capitalization closed-end equity fund, the Quaker Fund. BIC is an asset management firm headquartered in Holland with regional offices in several other European countries.

After accepting the position, Bair received a letter from the three principals of BIC. The letter congratulated Bair on her accomplishment and new position with the firm and also provided some guidance as to her new role and the firm's expectations.

Among other things, the letter stated the following:

"Because our firm is based in Holland and you will have clients located in many European countries, it is essential that you determine what laws and regulations are applicable to the management of this new fund. It is your responsibility to obtain this knowledge and comply with appropriate regulations. This is the first time we have offered a fund devoted solely to small capitalization securities, so we will observe your progress carefully. You will likely need to arrange for our sister companies to quietly buy and sell Quaker Fund shares over the first month of operations. This will provide sufficient price support to allow the fund to trade closer to its net asset value than other small-cap closed-end funds. Because these funds generally trade at a discount to net asset value, if our fund trades close to its net asset value, the market may perceive it as more desirable than similar funds managed by our competitors."

Bair heeded the advice from her firm's principals and collected information on the laws and regulations of three countries: Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. So far, all of the investors expressing interest in the Quaker Fund are from these areas. Based on her research, Bair decides the following policies are appropriate for the fund:

Note: Laws mentioned below are assumed for illustrative purposes.

• For clients located in Norway the fund will institute transaction crossing, since, unlike in Holland, the practice is not prohibited by securities laws or regulations. The process will involve internally matching buy and sell orders from Norwegian clients whenever possible. This will reduce brokerage fees and improve the fund's overall performance.

• For clients located in Denmark, account statements that include the value of the clients' holdings, number of trades, and average daily trading volume will be generated on a monthly basis as required by Denmark's securities regulators, even though the laws in Holland only require such reports to be generated on a quarterly basis.

• For clients located in Sweden, the fund will not disclose differing levels of service that are available for investors based upon the size of their investment. This policy is consistent with the laws and regulations in Holland. Sweden's securities regulations do not cover this type of situation.

Three months after the inception of the fund, its market value has grown from $200 million to $300 million and Bair's performance has earned her a quarter-end bonus. Since it is now the end of the quarter, Bair is participating in conference calls with companies in her fund. Bair calls into the conference number for Swift Petroleum. The meeting doesn't start for another five minutes, however, and as Bair waits, she hears the CEO and CFO of Swift discussing the huge earnings restatement that will be necessary for the financial statement from the previous quarter. The restatement will not be announced until the year's end, six months from now. Bair does not remind the officers that she can hear their conversation. Once the call has ended, Bair rushes to BIC's compliance officer to inform him of what she has learned during the conference call. Bair ignores the fact that two members of the firm's investment banking division are in the office while she is telling the compliance officer what happened on the conference call. The investment bankers then proceed to sell their personal holdings of Swift Petroleum stock. After her meeting, Bair sells the Quaker Fund's holdings of Swift Petroleum stock.

With regard to the treatment of clients in Sweden, does the policy that Bair has selected for the Quaker Fund violate any CFA Institute Standards of Professional Conduct?

3. Gabrielle Reneau, CFA, and Jack Belanger specialize in options strategies at the brokerage firm of Damon

and Damon. They employ fairly sophisticated strategies to construct positions with limited risk, to profit from future volatility estimates, and to exploit arbitrage opportunities. Damon and Damon also provide advice to outside portfolio managers on the appropriate use of options strategies. Damon and Damon prefer to use, and recommend, options written on widely traded indices such as the S&P 500 due to their higher liquidity.

However, they also use options written on individual stocks when the investor has a position in the underlying stock or when mispricing and/or trading depth exists.

In order to trade in the one-year maturity puts and calls for the S&P 500 stock index, Reneau and Belanger contact the chief economists at Damon and Damon, Mark Blair and Fran Robinson. Blair recently joined Damon and Damon after a successful stint at a London investment bank. Robinson has been with Damon and Damon for the past ten years and has a considerable record of success in forecasting macroeconomic activity. In his forecasts for the U.S. economy over the next year, Blair is quite bullish, for both the U.S. economy and the S&P 500 stock index. Blair believes that the U.S. economy will grow at 2% more than expected over the next year. He also states that labor productivity will be higher than expected, given increased productivity through the use of technological advances. He expects that these technological advances will result in higher earnings for U.S. firms over the next year and over the long run.

Reneau believes that the best S&P 500 option strategy to exploit Blair's forecast involves two options of the same maturity, one with a low exercise price, and the other with a high exercise price. The beginning stock price is usually below the two option strike prices. She states that the benefit of this strategy is that the maximum loss is limited to the difference between the two option prices.

Belanger is unsure that Blair's forecast is correct. He states that his own reading of the economy is for a continued holding pattern of low growth, with a similar projection for the stock market as a whole. He states that Damon and Damon may want to pursue an options strategy where a put and call of the same maturity and same exercise price are purchased. He asserts that such a strategy would have losses limited to the total cost of the two options.

Reneau and Belanger are also currently examining various positions in the options of Brendan Industries. Brendan Industries is a large-cap manufacturing firm with headquarters in the midwestern United States. The firm has both puts and calls sold on the Chicago Board Options Exchange. Their options have good liquidity for the near money puts and calls and for those puts and calls with maturities less than four months. Reneau believes that Brendan Industries will benefit from the economic expansion forecasted by Mark Blair, the Damon and Damon economist. She decides that the best option strategy to exploit these expectations is for her to pursue the same strategy she has delineated for the market as a whole. Shares of Brendan Industries are currently trading at $38. The following are the prices for their exchange-traded options.





As a mature firm in a mature industry, Brendan Industries stock has historically had low volatility.

However, Belanger's analysis indicates that with a lawsuit pending against Brendan Industries, the volatility of the stock price over the next 60 days is greater by several orders of magnitude than the implied volatility of the options. He believes that Damon and Damon should attempt to exploit this projected increase in Brendan Industries1 volatility by using an options strategy where a put and call of the same maturity and same exercise price are utilized. He advocates using the least expensive strategy possible.

During their discussions, Reneau cites a counter example to Brendan Industries from last year. She recalls that Nano Networks, a technology firm, had a stock price that stayed fairly stable despite expectations to the contrary. In this case, she utilized an options strategy where three different calls were used. Profits were earned on the strategy because Nano Networks' stock price stayed fairly stable. Even if the stock price had become volatile, losses would have been limited.

Later that week, Reneau and Belanger discuss various credit option strategies during a lunch time presentation to Damon and Damon client portfolio managers. During their discussion, Reneau describes a credit option strategy that pays the holder a fixed sum, which is agreed upon when the option is written, and occurs in the event that an issue or issuer goes into default. Reneau declares that this strategy can take the form of either puts or calls. Belanger states that this strategy is known as either a credit spread call option strategy or a credit spread put option strategy.

Reneau and Belanger continue by discussing the benefits of using credit options. Reneau mentions that

credit options written on an underlying asset will protect against declines in asset valuation. Belanger says that credit spread options protect against adverse movements of the credit spread over a referenced benchmark.

Regarding their comments concerning the credit option strategy that pays the holder a fixed sum, are Reneau and Belanger correct or incorrect?

4. Mary Rolle and Betty Sims are portfolio managers for RS Global Investments, located in Toronto, Canada. RS specializes in seeking undervalued stocks and bonds throughout the North American, Asian, and European markets. RS has clients throughout North America, however, the majority are Canadian institutional investors. RS has traditionally managed currency risk in their portfolios by assigning it to their portfolio managers. The manager is allowed discretion for hedging currency risk within the confines of the investor's investment policy statement.

Rolle and Sims are currently deciding whether to hedge the currency risk of a portfolio of Japanese stocks. Rolle explores the possibility of using three different currency hedges. Each is an option contract on the yen-Canadian dollar exchange rate.





RS has a portfolio of European stocks and would like to change its equity risk. They can enter into futures contracts on the Eurostoxx index of large European stocks. The information below provides the characteristics of the futures contract and the portfolio.

Portfolio value in euros 2,000,000

Desired beta value 1.80

Current portfolio beta 0.60

Beta of futures contract 1.02

Value of one futures contract in euros 110,000

RS is also invested in British and Argentine stocks. RS has taken a position in two main sectors of the British economy. The first sector consists of manufacturers who derive a great deal of their business from exporting to the United States and Canada. The other sector consists of British service firms who are largely immune from international competition, because most of their business is localized and cannot be provided by foreign firms. The main investment in the Argentine stocks consists of firms who provide cellular phone service to Argentine consumers. Rolle and Sims discuss which currency positions RS should hedge.

RS occasionally invests in mortgage-backed securities sold in the United States. The growth in these securities has increased tremendously over the past three decades as firms have used securitization to remove the risk of these securities from their balance sheet. RS holds a mortgage security issued by CWC International. This mortgage security has a coupon rate higher than newly issued mortgage securities. Sims discusses the return for this security when hedged with a short position in Treasury bond futures. Rolle and Sims further discuss how to hedge the risk of mortgage securities. Rolle states that two Treasury bond futures contracts are typically used instead of just one. Sims states that a hedge becomes more important if the volatility of interest rates increases.

Regarding the currency hedge of the British and Argentine stocks, which of the following would RS least likely hedge?

5. Carl Cramer is a recent hire at Derivatives Specialists Inc. (DSI), a small consulting firm that advises a variety of institutions on the management of credit risk. Some of DSI's clients are very familiar with risk management techniques whereas others are not. Cramer has been assigned the task of creating a handbook on credit risk, its possible impact, and its management. His immediate supervisor, Christine McNally, will assist Cramer in the creation of the handbook and will review it. Before she took a position at DSI, McNally advised banks and other institutions on the use of value-at-risk (VAR) as well as credit-at-risk (CAR).

Cramer's first task is to address the basic dimensions of credit risk. He states that the first dimension of credit risk is the probability of an event that will cause a loss. The second dimension of credit risk is the amount lost, which is a function of the dollar amount recovered when a loss event occurs. Cramer recalls the considerable difficulty he faced when transacting with Johnson Associates, a firm which defaulted on a contract with the Grich Company. Grich forced Johnson Associates into bankruptcy and Johnson Associates was declared in default of all its agreements. Unfortunately, DSI then had to wait until the bankruptcy court decided on all claims before it could settle the agreement with Johnson Associates. McNally mentions that Cramer should include a statement about the time dimension of credit risk. She states that the two primary time dimensions of credit risk are current and future. Current credit risk relates to the possibility of default on current obligations, while future credit risk relates to potential default on future obligations. If a borrower defaults and claims bankruptcy, a creditor can file claims representing the face value of current obligations and the present value of future obligations. Cramer adds that combining current and potential credit risk analysis provides the firm's total credit risk exposure and that current credit risk is usually a reliable predictor of a borrower's potential credit risk.

As DSI has clients with a variety of forward contracts, Cramer then addresses the credit risks associated with forward agreements. Cramer states that long forward contracts gain in value when the market price of the underlying increases above the contract price. McNally encourages Cramer to include an example of credit risk and forward contracts in the handbook.

She offers the following:

A forward contract sold by Palmer Securities has six months until the delivery date and a contractprice of 50. The underlying asset has no cash flows or storage costs and is currently priced at 50. In the contract, no funds were exchanged upfront.

Cramer also describes how a client firm of DSI can control the credit risks in their derivatives transactions. He writes that firms can make use of netting arrangements, create a special purpose vehicle, require collateral from counterparties, and require a mark-to-market provision. McNally adds that Cramer should include a discussion of some newer forms of credit protection in his handbook. McNally thinks credit derivatives represent an opportunity for DSL She believes that one type of credit derivative that should figure prominently in their handbook is total return swaps. She asserts that to purchase protection through a total return swap, the holder of a credit asset will agree to pass the total return on the asset to the protection seller (e.g., a swap dealer) in exchange for a single, fixed payment representing the discounted present value of expected cash flows from the asset.

A DSI client, Weaver Trading, has a bond that they are concerned will increase in credit risk. Weaver would like protection against this event in the form of a payment if the bond's yield spread increases beyond LIBOR plus 3%. Weaver Trading prefers a cash settlement.

Later that week, Cramer and McNally visit a client's headquarters and discuss the potential hedge of a bond issued by Cuellar Motors. Cuellar manufactures and markets specialty luxury motorcycles. The client is considering hedging the bond using a credit spread forward, because he is concerned that a downturn in the economy could result in a default on the Cuellar bond. The client holds $2,000,000 in par of the Cuellar bond and the bond's coupons are paid annually. The bond's current spread over the U.S. Treasury rate is 2.5%. The characteristics of the forward contract are shown below.

Information on the Credit Spread Forward





Regarding their statements concerning controlling credit risk, determine whether Cramer and McNally are correct or incorrect.

6. Bartholomew Hope, CFA, is the chief investment officer of Children's Trust Foundation (CTF), a foundation that supports a wide variety of child-related causes. CTFs total assets total $2.3 billion. The foundation's current asset mix is 55% stocks, 35% bonds, and 10% cash (T-bills earn 3.5%). The foundation provides $126.5 million annually for a variety of programs for children, which is forecasted to remain more or less constant in real terms. Hope does not envision any major capital expenditures for the foreseeable future. CTF's investment portfolio has underperformed its benchmark over the past three years. Hope believes corrective action is needed to address the issue of poor performance. Hope wants to evaluate the possibility the portfolio's risk to reward profile. Hope's staff generates Exhibit 1, which reviews the relevant necessary metrics to make the asset mix decision. The overall cost of investing the assets is 75 basis points.

Exhibit 1: Expected Returns, Risk, and Correlations for Asset under Consideration





One of the members of Hope's staff, Rene Meyer, includes a report on the key attributes of investing in venture capital funds.

The report includes the following sections:

Structure: "Indirect venture capital investments are achieved by pooling the funds of multiple investors into a limited partnership (LP). The investors are limited partners who allow a general partner to control the investments for a period of 7 to 10 years. The general partner also invests capital, earning a management fee of 1.5% to 2.5% of invested capital and a carried interest fee, which is generally 20% of the fund profits, after the fund's hurdle rate has been met."

Strategy: "Because initial public offerings are a primary exit strategy of venture capital investing, the correlation between public equity markets and returns on venture capital investments are positive. Therefore, the primary focus of any venture capital investment undertaken by Glendale should be long-term return enhancement rather than significant diversification. In addition, Glendale must make sure that all of the committed capital is available for the required up front cash distribution to the general partner at the beginning of the investment period."

Hope recognizes there are several unique strategies within the hedge fund group that have very different risk to reward trade-offs. Hope identifies three hedge funds as potential investment opportunities for the CTF. Exhibit 2 lists the funds under consideration and their most recent securities transactions.

Exhibit 2: Hedge Fund Transactions





While Clark presents the hedge funds, Hope comments that he is concerned with the potential difficulties in measuring hedge fund manager performance. Glendale's charter has strict requirements regarding the performance assessment of investment managers who control the assets of the foundation. Hope believes the performance of alternative investments presented may be difficult to evaluate against a benchmark index as required by Glendale's charter.

One of Hope's staff members has written a report on the proposed private equity investment. State whether the comments in the report related to the structure and strategy of CTFs private equity investment are correct.

7. Paul Dennon is senior manager at Apple Markets Associates, an investment advisory firm. Dennon has been examining portfolio risk using traditional methods such as the portfolio variance and beta. He has ranked portfolios from least risky to most risky using traditional methods.

Recently, Dennon has become more interested in employing value at risk (VAR) to determine the amount of money clients could potentially lose under various scenarios. To examine VAR, Paul selects a fund run solely for Apple's largest client, the Jude Fund. The client has $100 million invested in the portfolio. Using the variance-covariance method, the mean return on the portfolio is expected to be 10% and the standard deviation is expected to be 10%. Over the past 100 days, daily losses to the Jude Fund on its 10 worst days were (in millions): 20, 18, 16, 15, 12, 11, 10, 9, 6, and 5. Dennon also ran a Monte Carlo simulation (over 10,000 scenarios). The following table provides the results of the simulation:

Figure 1: Monte Carlo Simulation Data





The top row (Percentile) of the table reports the percentage of simulations that had returns below those reported in the second row (Return). For example, 95% of the simulations provided a return of 15% or less, and 97.5% of the simulations provided a return of 20% or less.

Dennon's supervisor, Peggy Lane, has become concerned that Dennon's use of VAR in his portfolio management practice is inappropriate and has called for a meeting with him. Lane begins by asking Dennon to justify his use of VAR methodology and explain why the estimated VAR varies depending on the method used to calculate it. Dennon presents Lane with the following table detailing VAR estimates for another Apple client, the York Pension Plan.





To round out the analytical process. Lane suggests that Dennon also incorporate a system for evaluating portfolio performance. Dennon agrees to the suggestion and computes several performance ratios on the York Pension Plan portfolio to discuss with Lane. The performance figures are included in the following table. Note that the minimum acceptable return is the risk-free rate.

Figure 3: Performance Ratios for the York Pension Plan





Using the performance evaluation information compiled by Dennon, determine which of the following statements is most likely correct with regard to the York Pension Plan. Over the last three years, the:

8. Johnny Bracco, CFA, is a portfolio manager in the trust department of Canada National (CNL) in Toronto. CNL is a financial conglomerate with many divisions. In addition to the trust department, the firm sells financial products and has a research department, a trading desk, and an investment banking division. Part of the company's operating procedures manual contains detailed information on how the firm allocates shares in oversubscribed stock offerings. Allocation is effected on a pro rata basis based upon factors such as the size of a client's portfolio, suitability, and previous notification to participate in IPOs. Additionally, company policy discloses to clients that any trade needs to meet a minimum transaction size in an effort to control trading costs and to comply with best execution procedures.

One of Bracco's trust accounts is the Carobilo family trust, which contains a portion of nondiscretionary funds managed by Stephen Carobilo. Carobilo has a friend who runs a brokerage firm called First Trades, to which Carobilo tells Bracco to direct trades from the nondiscretionary accounts. Bracco has learned that First Trades charges a slightly higher trading fee than other brokers providing comparable services, and he discloses this to Carobilo.

Due to high prices and limited supplies of oil, Bracco has been following companies in the energy sector. He believes this area of the economy is in turmoil and should present some mispricing opportunities. One company he has been researching is Stiles Corporation, which is working on a new type of hydrogen fuel cell that uses fusion technology to create energy. To date, no one has been able to successfully sustain a fusion reaction for an extended period of time. Bracco has been in close contact with Stiles' pubic relations department, has toured their laboratories, and has thoroughly researched fusion technology and Stiles' competitors. Bracco is convinced from his research, based upon various public sources, that Stiles is on the verge of perfecting this technology and will be the first firm to bring it to the marketplace. Jerry McNulty, CFA and vice president of the investment banking division of CNL, has been working with Stiles to raise new capital via a secondary offering of Stiles common shares. One day Bracco happened to be in a stall in the bathroom when McNulty and a colleague came in and discussed the fact that Stiles had perfected the fuel-cell technology, which will greatly increase the price of Stiles1 stock.

Stiles Corporation's board of directors includes Dr. Elaine Joachim, who is a physics professor at the University of Toronto. She also works part-time for Stiles Corporation as a consultant in their fusion technology laboratory. Her husband is a materials engineer who recently started performing consulting work for Stiles.

A routine audit by the quality control department at CNL discovered trading errors in several of Bracco's accounts involving an oversubscribed IPO. Some accounts received shares they should not have and others did not receive shares they should have. Bracco and his supervisor Jaime Gun, CFA, are taking responsibility to reverse the incorrect trades. Bracco told Gun, "I'll correct the trades based on our clients' investment policy statements, previous notification of intent, and according to the company's formula for allocating shares on a pro rata basis. In so doing, we will fairly allocate shares so even small accounts that did not meet minimum size requirements will receive some shares of the IPO." Gun replied to Bracco by saying, "I'll credit short-term interest back to the accounts that should not have received the shares and subtract interest from the accounts that should have received the shares."

That evening, Bracco and his wife attended the company holiday party for CNL employees and their spouses. Jerry McNulty, whose wife was ill and could not come to the party, arrived drunk from a meeting with Stiles' upper management. During the party McNulty made inappropriate advances toward many of the female employees and joked about the inadequacies of Stiles' managers.

Has Bracco violated any soft dollar standards regarding the Carobilo family trust? Bracco has:

9. Powerful Performance Presenters (PPP) is a performance attribution and evaluation firm for pension consulting firms and has recently been hired by Stober and Robertson to conduct a performance attribution analysis for TopTech. Tom Harrison and Wendy Powell are the principals for PPP. Although performance attribution has come under fire lately because of its shortcomings, Stober believes PPP provides a needed service to its clients. Robertson shares Stober's view of performance attribution analysis.

Stober and Robertson request that Harrison and Powell provide a discussion of performance measures.

During a conversation on complements to attribution analysis, Harrison notes the uses of the Treynor ratio. He states that the Treynor ratio is appropriate only when the investor's portfolio is well diversified. Powell states that the Sharpe ratio and the Treynor ratio will typically yield the same performance rankings for a set of portfolios.

Stober requests that PPP do some performance attribution calculations on TopTech's managers.

In order to facilitate the analysis, Stober provides the information in the following table:





Harrison states one of PPP's services is that it will determine if TopTech has chosen a valid benchmark. Stoher volunteers that indeed his firm's benchmark possesses the properties of a valid benchmark and describes its composition.

The benchmark has the following characteristics:

• It uses the top 10% of U.S. portfolio managers each year in each asset class as the benchmark for TopTech managers;

• TopTech is very careful to make sure that its managers are familiar with the securities in each benchmark asset class;

• The identities and weights of various securities in the TopTech benchmark are clearly defined.

During a presentation to Stober, Robertson, and other TopTech executives, Harrison and Powell describe how macro attribution analysis can decompose an entire fund's excess returns into various levels. In his introduction, Robertson delineates the six levels as net contributions, risk-free return, asset categories, benchmarks, investment managers, and allocations effects.

Robertson states that TopTech has performed impressively at the investment managers level tor three years in a row. Harrison and Powell then describe the levels in greater detail. Harrison describes the benchmark level as the difference between active managers' returns and their benchmark returns. Powell states that the investment managers' level reflects the returns to active management on the part of the fund's managers, weighted by the amount actually allocated to each manager.

At the request of Stober, Harrison and Powell explore alternatives to the benchmark TopTech is currently using for its small-cap value manager.

After some investigation of the small-cap value manager’s emphasis, Harrison and Powell derive four potential custom benchmarks and calculate two measures to evaluate the benchmarks:

(1) the return to the manager’s active management or A = portfolio return - benchmark return; and (2) the return to the manager's style or S = benchmark return - broad market return.

The following characteristics are presented below for each benchmark:

(1) the beta between the benchmark and the small-cap value portfolio;

(2) the tracking error (i.e., the standard deviation of A);

(3) the turnover of the benchmark;

and (4) the correlation between A and S.





Harrison and Powell evaluate the benchmarks based on the four measures.

Of the three benchmarks, determine which would be most appropriate for the small cap value manager.

10. Paul Dennon is senior manager at Apple Markets Associates, an investment advisory firm. Dennon has been examining portfolio risk using traditional methods such as the portfolio variance and beta. He has ranked portfolios from least risky to most risky using traditional methods.

Recently, Dennon has become more interested in employing value at risk (VAR) to determine the amount of money clients could potentially lose under various scenarios. To examine VAR, Paul selects a fund run solely for Apple's largest client, the Jude Fund. The client has $100 million invested in the portfolio. Using the variance-covariance method, the mean return on the portfolio is expected to be 10% and the standard deviation is expected to be 10%. Over the past 100 days, daily losses to the Jude Fund on its 10 worst days were (in millions): 20, 18, 16, 15, 12, 11, 10, 9, 6, and 5. Dennon also ran a Monte Carlo simulation (over 10,000 scenarios). The following table provides the results of the simulation:

Figure 1: Monte Carlo Simulation Data





The top row (Percentile) of the table reports the percentage of simulations that had returns below those reported in the second row (Return). For example, 95% of the simulations provided a return of 15% or less, and 97.5% of the simulations provided a return of 20% or less.

Dennon's supervisor, Peggy Lane, has become concerned that Dennon's use of VAR in his portfolio management practice is inappropriate and has called for a meeting with him. Lane begins by asking Dennon to justify his use of VAR methodology and explain why the estimated VAR varies depending on the method used to calculate it. Dennon presents Lane with the following table detailing VAR estimates for another Apple client, the York Pension Plan.





To round out the analytical process. Lane suggests that Dennon also incorporate a system for evaluating portfolio performance. Dennon agrees to the suggestion and computes several performance ratios on the York Pension Plan portfolio to discuss with Lane. The performance figures are included in the following table. Note that the minimum acceptable return is the risk-free rate.

Figure 3: Performance Ratios for the York Pension Plan





Which of the following correctly assesses Dennon's comment regarding the Monte Carlo Simulation method of estimating VAR?


 

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